Part I Development of Gait -Birth to Age Eight-
- Newborn stepping in neonates and young infants.
- Independent walking in Infants.
- From newborn stepping to mature walking.
Part II Application to Gait Analysis and Evaluation
- An index of gait instability.
- Application of supported walking in normal neonates and infants.
- Application of recovery of walking in an elderly man after stroke.
We have gathered together in this book the results of our study and analysis of gait carried out over the last 40 years, in the hope that this rare elctromyographical data concerning gait development will contribute to the further development of this field.
Part I contains our analysis, based on movement and muscle activity, of the development and changes in gait from birth until the age of eight, that is from the stage of neonatal reflex stepping, thought to be the origin of bipedal upright walking in human beings, through that of the acquisition and mastering of infant independent walking to that of the acquisition of mature adult walking. Part II introduces our application of this to the analysis and evaluation of gait. We have created "An Index of Gait Instability" based on the results of our analysis of the gait development of infant independent walking, which we apply to research into the nature of human stepping and the evaluation of the level of restoration of walking functions in the elderly.
We hope that this book will prove useful to those engages in gait studies, not only as a basic reference material analyzing the development of gait, but also as a basis for research, analysis and application in various fields that will help to generate new ideas about human gait.
Professor Emeritus of Kansai Medical University
Director of Walking Development Group
Tsutomu Okamoto, Ph.D.
Walking Development Group
G-804, Tenno2-6, Ibaraki-shi, Osaka 567-0876, JAPAN